Neurodivergence in Criminal Justice Network (NICJN)

The Neurodivergence in Criminal Justice Network (NICJN) is a newly established group of researchers, practitioners and community members interested in the challenges faced by neurodivergent individuals drawn into the criminal justice system of England and Wales.

‘Neurodivergence’ commonly describes cognitive development which varies from the typical, related primarily to learning, attention, sensory processing, and mood regulation. Neurodivergent conditions include autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and dyslexia among numerous others.

Individuals drawn into the criminal justice system (CJS) – as suspects, defendants, victims or witnesses – generally face significant challenges due to the stressful, complex and specialised nature of criminal proceedings. This is acute for vulnerable persons, including those with physical and mental health issues.

Due to the nature of neurodivergent conditions and the manner in which the CJS operates, engagement can be particularly challenging for neurodivergent individuals, with evidence suggesting that significant barriers to a positive and effective experience remain at all stages, including in policing, courts and prisons.

Scope of NICJN

The NICJN brings together key voices in relation to neurodivergence (as described above) and the CJS (covering the processes of policing, courts, prisons, and probations) in England and Wales:

  • researchers (from varied disciplines including forensic science, psychology, and law)
  • clinical, legal (e.g. police, lawyers, judiciary) and other relevant practitioners
  • community members who are neurodivergent or have a personal connection to neurodivergent individuals with ‘lived experience’ of the CJS.

Purpose and aims

The primary purposes of the NICJN are as follows:

  • exchange: aid dialogue and knowledge exchange between the different but related communities above; provide a platform for these communities to share their work, interests, activities and voice
  • connect: act as a ‘switchboard’ connecting the different communities/individuals; act as a ‘hub’ for knowledge and expertise, promoting access to literature, information, and specialist knowledge.

The broad, long-term aims of the NICJN are to:

  • embed research into practice: by enabling research, knowledge and lived experience to better penetrate criminal justice practice
  • raise awareness: by providing access to different communities’ knowledge and experience, therefore more widely raising awareness and understanding
  • promote reform: by pursuing positive changes through both exchange between the members of the network, and with relevant external groups (e.g. policymakers, parliamentarians, charities)
  • advancing knowledge: through collaborative publication, presentation, evidence-gathering and bids for funding.


Dr Tom Smith, Senior Lecturer in Law, UWE Bristol.

NICJN Launch Event

The launch of NICJN on 27 July 2021 was themed around Autism in Criminal Justice. It included presentations by a range of experts of autism and policing, courts, and prisons; the accounts of individuals with lived experience; and the scope and aims of the network were discussed.

Read about the NICJN launch event (PDF)


If you have any queries about NICJN or about joining, please contact the network (