What is UWE Bristol Harvard?

How to reference different types of work with the UWE Bristol Harvard standard, the University's main referencing standard. 

As there is no one way of referencing in the Harvard style (also known as the Author-Date system), Library Services developed UWE Bristol Harvard to provide more consistency in marking practices and in the support and guidance that can be provided.

Remember, you must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Two students using their laptops in the library.

Introduction to referencing

Discover the what, why, when, where and how of referencing at UWE Bristol. Includes common terms and what to include in your assignment word count.

Introduction to referencing
Student using a laptop in Frenchay Library.

Guidance

Missing details (no author, no date, no place of publication, etc)

Note: Always try your best to find missing information, for instance, by searching online for the publishing organisation. Where it is missing, indicate that it is a deliberate omission, as in the examples below.

My source doesn't specify an author

If there is no author given, use Anon.

My information has no date of publication/creation

If no date of publication/creation can be identified, use (no date) in the reference, and refer to only the author/creator in the in-text citation.

My source doesn't have a place of publication

If there is no place of publication given, use (no place).

Refer to (cite) a work in your text

See how to refer to (cite) a work in your text for citing someone's work in a number of ways:

  • refer to their work
  • refer to the author by name
  • refer to two or three authors
  • refer to four or more authors
  • refer to multiple works at the same time
  • refer to multiple works of an author published in the same year
  • refer to a work without a given author.

Quote or paraphrase (reword) an author's work

Quote an author's work

General advice on how to format quotations in your assignment (includes when to use quotation marks).

Include the page number(s) of the quote in your citation.

Example: "Developments in information technology have a direct impact on healthcare, through decision support systems". (Robinson, 2012, p.32).

Example: As Smith states (2013, p.58), "referencing is more than just placing the right comma and the right brackets in the right place!".

Note on page numbers:

  • A 'p.' is used when a single page is being quoted or referred to. For example, p.67.
  • A 'pp.' is used when multiple pages are being quoted or referred to. For example, pp. 102-167. When using 'pp.' you need to add a space afterwards before the number.
  • If the work has no page numbers (for example, videos and most websites) the page number can be omitted.

Paraphrase (reword) an author's work

Paraphrasing is when you reword someone else’s written or spoken work.

You may find you need to do this when you want to express a thought or idea with greater clarity.

If you paraphrase you must acknowledge your source otherwise you are guilty of plagiarism, ie passing off someone else's work as your own.

When paraphrasing, only add a page number/page numbers if you believe it may be helpful to your reader to locate the source of an idea or explanation.

Tutorial: visit the study skills: plagiarism pages to learn how to paraphrase correctly.

Examples

Original text: To study the great civilizations as an explanatory background to the present means stepping aside from the headlong rush of history since 1914. It invites us to reflect on history with a slower pulse-rate, history in the longer term (Braudel, 1993, p.37).

Paraphrase example (general argument): In A History of Civilizations, Fernand Braudel demonstrates the principle that that we can learn much from taking a long view of history, over millennia as well decades (Braudel, 1993).

Paraphrase example (specific point): Fernand Braudel suggested that the end of the Korean War damaged the Indonesian economy (Braudel, 1993, p. 268).

Combination of paraphrase and quotation example: Braudel advocates a longue durée approach to the past, suggesting that much can be learned from taking a long view across the centuries and when we “reflect on history with a slower pulse-rate” (Braudel, 1993, p.37).

Note on page numbers: The most important thing is to consider your reader when you are paraphrasing. If you are referring to a general principle that is followed throughout a text, then there is no need to cite a specific page (see “general argument” example above. If, however, you are paraphrasing a particular idea (see “specific point” example above) then this may be helpful to your reader. He or she might not want to check the many references to Indonesia and Korea in Braudel’s 600-page book to find out the context for his claim.

Referencing confidential material

You may need to reference confidential material - for example, if you have access to an organisation’s intranet whilst on placement and need to cite some of their documents. In order to protect the identity of the organisation, it is important you anonymise the information. If in doubt about whether to include material, seek guidance from the relevant module leader.

How to format your reference

[Anonymised body]. (Year) Anonymised Title (Use square brackets for any part of the title that is anonymised). Location: [Anonymised publisher].

Example: [Placement Location]. (2013) The Use of Do Not Resuscitate Orders: Older People with Dementia. Bristol: [Placement Provider].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Discussion took place regarding the local policy [Placement Location, 2013]

Referencing something not listed in the A-Z below

If possible, try to find something similar in the A-Z and use your judgement in applying the same formatting rules.

Refer to a work you haven't read that has been referred to in another work that you have read (secondary referencing)

You may wish to cite a work you haven't read that has been referred to in another work that you have read.

In this case you should cite the primary source (the unread work) and the secondary source (the read work) in your text.

However, in your reference list/bibliography, you should just reference the secondary source.

Example: Rowley (1991) cites the work of Melack and Thompson (1971), who developed the McGill Archaeology questionnaire.

Example: Melack and Thompson (1971, cited by Rowley 1991) developed the McGill Archaeology questionnaire.

Example: Rowley (1991, citing Melack and Thompson 1971) refers to the McGill Archaeology questionnaire.

In these examples, the list of references would only contain the work by Rowley.

Recommendation: secondary referencing should be avoided if at all possible. The author may be citing the primary reference because of their own interpretation of its relevance, possibly in quite a different context. We recommend you read the primary source for yourself to ensure its relevance to your particular purpose.

How it works

Acts of Parliament and Parliamentary Bills

Acts of Parliament (statutes) pre-1963 (electronic format)

How to format your reference

Short Title of Act and Year [online] (Regnal year and abbreviated Name of Sovereign, chapter number). Name of website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: The Public Libraries Act 1850 [online] (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65). Westlaw. Available from: http://www.westlaw.com/ [Accessed 20 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Within The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65) it is stated that... 

Acts of Parliament (statutes) pre-1963 (print format)

How to format your reference

Short Title of Act and Year (Regnal year and abbreviated Name of Sovereign, chapter number).

Example: The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65).

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Within The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65) it is stated that... 

Acts of Parliament (statutes) post-1963 (electronic format)

How to format your reference

Name of Act [online]. Chapter number. (Year of publication) Name of website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Football (Disorder) Act 2000 [online]. Chapter 25. (2000) Westlaw UK. Available from: http://www.westlaw.co.uk/ [Accessed 21 November 2010].

Example: Human Rights Act 1998 [online]. Chapter 42. (1998) Westlaw UK. Available from: http://www.westlaw.co.uk/ [Accessed 27 November 2014].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Following the introduction of the Football (Disorder) Act (2000)...

Example: The court must have regard to any relevant privacy code when considering material that a respondent claims to be "journalistic, literary or artistic material" (Human Rights Act 1998, s. 12(4)(b)).

Acts of Parliament (statutes) post-1963 (print format)

How to format your reference

Name of Act. Chapter number. (Year of publication) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Football (Disorder) Act 2000. Chapter 25.(2000) London: The Stationery Office.

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Following the introduction of the Football (Disorder) Act (2000)... 

Parliamentary Bill (electronic format)

How to format your reference:

Title of Bill [online] (Year of publication). Parliament: House of Commons or Lords. Bill number. Name of Website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Driving (Persons with Dementia) Bill [online] (2019). Parliament: House of Commons. Bill no. 23. UK Parliament. Available from: https://hansard.parliament.uk/commons/2019-06-04/debates/C7742046-A04A-4038-A8BE-29BD7D955392/Driving(PersonsWithDementia) [Accessed 17 March 2021]

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Rachel Maclean introduced the Driving (Persons with Dementia) Bill (2019).

Parliamentary Bill (print format)

How to format your reference:

Title of Bill (Year of publication). Parliament: House of Commons or Lords. Bill number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Food Labelling (Sugar Content) Bill (2013). Parliament: House of Commons. Bill no. 23. London: The Stationery Office.

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text:

Mr Vaz introduced the Food Labelling (Sugar Content) Bill (2013).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Apps

See Software.

Art, works of

Images of works of art

For example, within printed texts or in galleries or institutions.

See images and illustrations.

Works of art in a gallery or institution

For example, objects, artefacts, paintings and drawings, installations, etc.

How to format your reference

Artist surname, initials. (Date of creation) Title of the Work [medium]. At: Geographic location of where the work is housed: institution or collection that houses the work.

Example: Hepworth, B. (1968) Hollow Form with Inner Form [bronze sculpture]. At: Copenhagen: British Embassy.

Example: Wood, T. (1993) Alan Bennett [painting]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.

Example: Abbott, B. (c.1958) Transformation of Energy [gelatin silver print]. At: Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Hepworth's Hollow Form with Inner Form demonstrates the artist's abstract work (1968).

Example: Abbott's worth, Transformation of Energy, (1958) is displayed in a simple wooden frame.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Blogs

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the blog entry. Title of the Blog [blog]. DD Month of posted message (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example 1: Rogers, S. (2010) Local council spending over £500: full list of who has published what so far. Data Blog [blog]. 10 September. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/sep/10/local-council-spending-over-500-list [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example 2: Howard, E. (2010) Seconds. Only the Cinema [blog]. 22 July. Available from: http://seul-le-cinema.blogspot.com/2010/07/seconds.html [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example 1: Rogers (2010) explored the spending culture...

Example 2: In a review of the film (Howard, 2010) it was noted that...

Book chapters

Note: the author of the chapter and the author or editor of the book may be the same person or they may be different. The year of the chapter and the year of the book may be the same or they may be different.

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Book chapter title. In: Author surname, initials., ed. (if applicable) (Year of publication) Title of Book [online]. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Scott, C.V. (2011) Tradition and gender in modernization theory. In: Harding, S., ed. (2011) Postcolonial Science and Technology Studies Reader [online]. London: Duke University Press, pp. 290-309. [Accessed 30 June 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Scott (2011) argues that traditional modernization theorists adopted sexist views of the world.

Print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication of chapter if specified) Book chapter title. In: Author surname, initials., ed. (if applicable) (Year of publication) Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example 1: Naimark, M. (2003) Sensory anomalies. In: Laurel, B., ed. (2003) Design Research Methods and Perspectives. Cambridge: The MIT Press, pp. 109-117.

Example 2: Ayres, A. (1982) Bulbs: techniques. In: Ayres, A., ed. (1988) Gardening from Which? Guide to Successful Propagation. London: Consumers' Association, pp. 67-68.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example 1: Naimark (2003) identified that...

Example 2: Ayres (1982) explains that the growing season...

Digital repositories

How to format your reference

Chapter author surname, initials. (Year of contribution) Chapter title. In: Book editor/author surname, editor/author initials. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of Digital Repository [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Carel, H. (2011) Nursing and medicine. In: Overgaard, S. and Luft, S., eds. (2011) Routledge Companion to Phenomenology. London: Routledge. UWE Research Repository [online]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11364/ [Accessed 10 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Carel (2011) states that...

Multi-volume works

How to format your reference

If part of a multi-volume work, add after the title of the book: Vol. XX, Subtitle (if present).

Example: Hoiberg, A.J. and Long, E.G. (1982) Roofing materials. In: Grayson, M. and Eckroth, D.V., eds., (1982) Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology: Vol. 20, Refractories to Silk. New York: John Wiley, pp. 320-336.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Slate is one of the most effective materials (Hoiberg and Long, 1982)...

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Books

Electronic books

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Chappell, P. and De Beer, M., eds. (2018) Diverse Voices of Disabled Sexualities in the Global South [online]. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. [Accessed 14 May 2020].

Use the UWE Bristol Harvard reference builder

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Chappell and DeBeer (2018) give voice to disabled people across the global south.

Books

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Pearson, A., Field, J., Ford, D. and Jordan, Z. (2007) Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience and Expertise. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Use the UWE Bristol Harvard reference builder.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The need for care and guidance (Pearson et al., 2007) is evident...

Example: As Pearson et al. states (2007, p.72), "The basis of evidence-based practice is, of course, evidence."

Books, reprint editions

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of first publication) Title. Reprint. Place of publication: Publisher, Year reprint published.

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Cheyne, G. (1724) An Essay of Health and Long Life. Reprint. London: Doddington Press, 1977.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In his essay, Cheyne (1724) refers to the use of herbal remedies.

Books, translations

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication of the translation). Title. Translated from the [language] by First name Last name. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Dostoevsky, F.M. (1987) Crime and Punishment. Translated from the Russian by Jessie Coulson. London: Hamlyn.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This brings about Raskolnikov’s dilemma (Dostoevsky, 1987).

Multi-volume books

How to format your reference

For multi-volume work, add (X vols.) after title.

Example: Beebe, R. and Myers, J.C. (2011) Paramedic Professional (3 vols.) London: Cengage.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: As Beebe and Myers explain (2011)...

Anthologies

How to format your reference

Example: Boxill, J., ed. (2003) Sports Ethics: an Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A change in behaviour has been demonstrated (Boxill, 2003)...

Electronic book devices (eg Kindle)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Chappell, P. and De Beer, M., eds. (2018) Diverse Voices of Disabled Sexualities in the Global South [online]. Kindle ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. [Accessed 14 May 2020].

Note: How to format your reference as for an electronic book, but state ‘no page’ if there are no page numbers, or if the page numbers move depending on the size of the screen/text. There is also no need to add the Accessed Date to the reference.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: It is clear that a voice has been given to disabled people across the global south (Chappell and De Beer, 2018, no page).

E-books from legal databases

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of Database [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Ormerod, D. and Perry, D. eds. (2020) Blackstone’s Criminal Practice 2021. 30th Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Westlaw Edge UK [online]. Available from: https://uk.westlaw.com/ [Accessed 15 March 2021].

Electronic reference book (including dictionaries)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of chapter or section. In: Title [online].[Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: many electronic reference books are constantly added to, therefore there may not be a date of publication for the book as a whole. Often there is a year of publication for a chapter, so this should be included in the reference.

Example: Levinton, J.S. (2005) Macroevolution: overview. In: John Wiley & Sons. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences [online]. [Accessed 19 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Levinton (2005, p.1) notes that “the only current scale that can be readily used to make macroevolutionary comparisons is the familiar taxonomic hierarchy”.

Definition from online legal dictionary

How to format your reference

Dictionary title (Year of publication) Title of chapter or section. In: Title [online]. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Jowitt’s Dictionary of English Law (2019) Mens rea. In: Westlaw Edge UK Index to Legal Terms [online]. [Accessed 22 March 2021].

Books in digital repositories

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of Digital Repository [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Sinnett, D. (2006) Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration Note 9: Maximising Biodiversity. Farnham, Surrey: Forest Research. UWE Research Repository [online]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk [Accessed 19 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Methods of ensuring biodiversity have been researched (Sinnett, 2006)...

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Censuses

Electronic format

How to format your reference

'Name of person' (year of census) Details of Census. Public Record Office: Piece number, folio number, page number [online]. Name of website (Year of last update). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: 'Edmund Hird' (1881) Census Return for Salisbury Road, Biddlescombe, St Paul's Sub-district, Herefordshire [online]. Public Record Office: PRO SH8/5628, folio 654, p.22. Ancestry (2010). Available from: http://www.ancestry.co.uk [Accessed 06 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Hird was certainly present in the area at that time ('Edmund Hird' 1881).

Print format

How to format your reference

'Name of person' (year of census) Details of Census. Public Record Office: Piece number, folio number, page number.

Cochrane reviews

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the review. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [online]. (Part no.). [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Cahill, K., Stevens, S., Perera, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013) Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [online]. (5). [Accessed 26 March 2014].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Cahill et al. (2013) reach the conclusion that...

Computer games

Digital download

How to format your reference

Company/individual developer surname, initials. (Release year) Title of Game. Version/edition. [Video game]. Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY]

Example: 343 Industries (2015) Halo 5: Guardians. Digital Deluxe Edition. [Video game]. Microsoft Studios. Available from: http://www.xbox.com/en-gb/Search?q=Halo+5 [Accessed 28 March 2018].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: FIFA 16 (EA, 2015) and Halo: 5 Guardians (343 Industries, 2015) are two of the most popular online games.

Physical copies of games

How to format your reference

Company/individual developer surname, initials. (Release year) Title of Game. Version/edition. [Video game]. Publisher.

Example: 343 Industries (2015) Halo 5: Guardians. Digital Deluxe Edition. [Video game]. Microsoft Studios.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: FIFA 16 (EA, 2015) and Halo: 5 Guardians (343 Industries, 2015) are two of the most popular online games.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Conference papers and proceedings

Conference papers

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of conference paper/contribution. In: Editor Surname, initials., ed. Title of Conference Proceedings. Place of conference, date of conference. Place of publication (if known): Publisher, page numbers.

Example 1: Silver, K. (1989) Electronic mail: the new way to communicate. In: Raitt, D.I., ed. 9th International Information Meeting. London, 3-5 December 1988. Oxford: Learned Information, pp. 323-330.

Example 2: Tierney, T. (2008) Network morphologies. In: Kudless, A., Oxman, N. and Swackhamer, M., eds. Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 15-17 November 2008. ACADIA, pp. 230-237.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example 1: Silver's research (1989) has since been expanded...

Example 2: The network requirements stated by Tierney (2008), show that...

Conference proceedings, published on the Internet

How to format your reference

Editor surname, initials., ed. (Year of publication) Title of Conference Proceedings [online], Place of Conference, DD Month YYYY of conference. Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., ed. (2009) WWW2009: The 18th International World Wide Web Conference [online]. Municipal Conference Centre, Madrid, 20-22 April 2009. Association for Computing Machinery. Available from: http://www.www2009.org/proceedings/main.html [Accessed 11 August 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: With sessions on topics from data mining to social media, The 18th International World Wide Web Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2009) covered a multitude...

Conference proceedings - print format

How to format your reference

Editor surname, initials., ed. (Year of publication) Title of Conference Proceedings, Place of Conference, DD Month YYYY of conference. Place of publication (if known): Publisher.

Example: Kudless, A., Oxman, N. and Swackhamer, N., eds. (2008) Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 15-17 November 2008. ACADIA.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The conference brought together a global panel (Kudless, Oxman and Swackhamer, 2008) to discuss…

Conference papers in digital repositories

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (year) Title of Paper, Title of Conference, Organisation or Company, Location, date of conference. Name of Digital Repository [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Wharton, R. and Pollard, K. (2010) Sessional GPs, Primary Care in Bristol, Bristol PCT, Eastwood Park, 6 July 2010. UWE Research Repository [online]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11236/ [Accessed 19 October 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A recent conference explored this concept (Wharton and Pollard, 2010)...

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Datasets

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of data, Title of Database (version) [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center (2008) Geometric and seismological data, Global Change Master Directory (2008 version) [online]. Available from: http://gcmd.nasa.gov [Accessed 15 October 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The data show the impact of seismological activity (NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, 2008).

Diagrams, tables, and graphs

Note: If the diagram is taken from a web page it should be cited as a web page.

How to format your reference

Note: reference where you located the diagram, table, or graph. For example, for a graph in a book give the book details.

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Book [diagram/table/graph]. Place of publication: Publisher, page number or figure number for graph.

Example: Wendell, P. and Roca, B. (2001) Public Housing Statistics [graph]. Bristol: Bristol City Council, p. 29.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Wendell and Roca highlight that the number of council properties available to inhabitants of Bristol declined by 30% between 1975 and 1999 (2001).

Example within a diagram caption: Figure 1: Council properties availability in Bristol 1975-1999 (Wendell and Roca, 2001).

Images you have created yourself

If you have created your own images (e.g. drawings, charts, graphs, tables and photographs) you do not need to reference them. However, you should include a caption with a brief explanation or title. For further information, see our guide to formatting your work.

EU Law

EU Law Legislation (electronic format)

Title of Legislation [online] (Year of publication) Official Journal. Series, Page numbers. Name of Website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union [online] (2008). Official Journal. C115, 9 May, pp. 13-45. EUR-Lex. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A12008M%2FTXT&qid=1616075181638 [Accessed 18 March 2021].

EU Law Legislation (print format)

How to format your reference

Title of Legislation (Year of publication). Official Journal. Series, Page numbers.

Example: Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union (2008). Official Journal. C115, 9 May, pp. 13-45.

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: All signatories to the Treaty (Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union, 2008)

EU Directives and Regulations (electronic format)

How to format your reference

‘Title of Legislation, number and title’ [online] (Year of publication). Official Journal. Series, Page numbers. Name of Website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: ‘Council directive 2008 /52/EC on certain aspects of mediation in civil and commercial matters’ [online] (2008). Official Journal. L136, p. 3. EUR-Lex. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32008L0052&qid=1616076437698 [Accessed 18 March 2021].

EU Directives and Regulations (print format)

How to format your reference:

‘Type of Legislation, number and title’ (Year of publication). Official Journal. Series, Page numbers.

Example: ‘Council directive 2008 /52/EC on certain aspects of mediation in civil and commercial matters’ (2008). Official Journal. L136, p. 3.

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: The minister highlighted the terms of ‘Council directive 2008/52/EC’ (2008).

EU Decisions (electronic format)

How to format your reference

‘Case number and name’ (Year of publication). Commission Decision. Name of Website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: ‘Case M.7558 - DS Smith/Duropack’ (2015). Commission Decision. EUR-Lex. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32015M7558&qid=1616077178759 [Accessed 18 March 2021].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: The minister highlighted the terms of ‘DS Smith/Duropack’ (2015).

EU Cases (print format)

How to format your reference

‘Case name’ (Year of publication). Case number, European Case Law Identifier. Publication title. Section, page numbers.

Example: ‘Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Sweden’ (2005). Case no. C-111/03. ECLI:EU:C:2005:619. European Court Reports, I, 08789.

Example of referring to (citing) a case in your text

Example: Consideration of the Swedish view (‘Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Sweden’, 2005)

EU cases (electronic format)

How to format your reference

‘Case name’ [online] (Year of publication). Case number, European Case Law Identifier. Publication title. Section, page numbers. Name of website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD MM YYYY].

Example: ‘Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Sweden’ [online] (2005). Case no. C-111/03. ECLI:EU:C:2005:619. European Court Reports, I, 08789. Curia. Available from: https://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf?text=&docid=60646&pageIndex=0&doclang=EN&mode=lst&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=4665887 [Accessed 18 March 2021].

Example of referring to (citing) a case in your text

Example: Consideration of the Swedish view (‘Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Sweden’, 2005)

Exhibition catalogues

Note: to reference specific images in an exhibition catalogue, see images and illustrations. To reference specific works of art (not from a printed source), see art, works of.

Where the author or editor is known

How to format your reference

Author/editor surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Harwood, L. (2002) Inspired by Italy: Dutch Landscape Paintings 1600-1700. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Harwood asserts that "paintings from the first half of the 1660s include fanciful visions of the Italian terrain" (2002, p.165).

Get further advice on citing.

Where the author or editor is unknown

How to format your reference

Gallery (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher or gallery.

Example: Kettle’s Yard (1998) Paved with Gold. Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: John Riddy observes that "the photographs contain subtle convergences of time and incident with acutely observed details that act like a pinprick" (Kettle’s Yard, 1998, p.34).

Films and videos

Note: there is no need to reference dialogue from films provided that the film itself is referenced, as it is usually clear that the dialogue has been taken from the film. Therefore, the in-text citation would only need to be included the first time the film is mentioned.

Films viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Title of film (Year of release) [online]. Directed by Directors name. Country of distribution: Distribution company. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: 13TH (2016) [online]. Directed by Ava DuVernay. USA:. Netflix. Available from http://www.netflix/com [Accessed 27 July 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: 13TH (2016) provides an in-depth look at the prison system in the United States ...

Films and videos downloaded

How to format your reference

Author/artist/director's surname, Author/artist/director's initials. (Year of publication) Title of the File/Song/Film. Title of the internet website [online]. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Lee, S. (2018) BlacKkKlansman. Netflix.com [online]. Available from: http://www.netflix.com/gb [Accessed 28 July 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: BlacKkKlansman (2018) demonstrates Stallworth's ambition in the line, “I’ll do whatever it takes...and I hate the records room”

Films and videos viewed on television

See television

Films and videos on DVD

How to format your reference

Title of Film (Year of release) [format]. Directed by Director’s Name. Country of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Harriet (2019) [DVD]. Directed by Kasi Lemmons. UK: Universal Pictures.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The film, Harriet (2019) embodies Tubman’s determination to free her family in lines such as, “God don’t mean people to own people.”

DVD extras

How to format your reference (eg directors' commentaries on DVDs)

Director/commentator surname, initials. (Year) Director/commentator's commentary, Title of Film. [DVD]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Warchus, M. And Beresford, S. (2014) Audio Commentary, Pride. [DVD]. London: Pathe.

How to format your reference (interviews with directors of films)

Surname, initials of person interviewed (Year of the interview) Title of the interview. Interviewed by name of interviewer. Title of film. [DVD]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Coogler, R. (2018) Interview with Ryan Coogler. Interviewed by Don McGregor. Black Panther [DVD]. UK: Walt Disney.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In an interview about Black Panther, Coogler (2018) said “African-Americans truly are African. It takes a lot more than what happened to us to take that out of us.”

Videos viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Author* surname, initials. (Year of posting) Title of the video. Title of the Website [video]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

* name of the person posting the video

Example: Channel 4 News (2020). Statue of Bristol slaver Edward Colston torn down by Black Lives Matter demonstrators. YouTube [video]. 07 June. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgEzVHq1OFQ [Accessed 31 July 2020].

Example: 5minTravel (2010) Visit New York's public library. Dailymotion [video]. 08 July. Available from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xecgxi_visit-new-york-s-public-library_travel [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The grandeur of the building can be seen here (5minTravel, 2010).

Citing

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House of Commons/Lords papers and debates

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Parliament. Name of House. Name of Committee (if applies) (Year of publication) Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. (HC/HL YYYY/YYYY (session's year if applicable) paper number). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: House of Lords paper number should appear between round brackets.

House of Commons example: Parliament. House of Commons (2007) Response to Sir Kevin Tebbit's Review of the Management and Services of the House of Commons [online]. London: The Stationery Office. (HC 193). Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmcomm/193/193.pdf [Accessed 20 July 2010].

House of Lords example: Parliament. House of Lords. Select Committee on Economic Affairs (2010) Response to Report on Private Finance Projects and Off Balance Sheet Debt: Second Report [online]. London: The Stationery Office Limited. (HL 2009/2010 (114)). Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeconaf/114/114.pdf [Accessed 11 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: According to the Response to Sir Kevin Tebbit’s Review of the Management and Services of the House of Commons, “The Members Estimate Audit Committee, being a sub-committee of a committee of the House, could not have an external Chairman without a decision of the House” (Parliament. House of Commons, 2007).

Note: It is important to avoid ambiguity in order for your reader to be able to link your in text citation to the full reference you are providing in your reference list. In most cases a brief citation as above will be sufficient to link to the appropriate report. However, if you are citing more than one House of Commons report published in 2007, it would be necessary to distinguish between the reports referring to a brief title in your main text. For example: According to the Response to Sir Kevin Tebbit's Review (2007), ...

Print format

How to format your reference

Parliament. Name of House. Name of Committee (if applies) (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (HC/HL YYYY/YYYY paper number).

Note: House of Lords paper number should appear between round brackets.

House of Commons example: Parliament. House of Commons (1999) Criminal Justice: Working Together, Session 1999-2000. London: The Stationery Office. (HC 1999-2000 29).

House of Lords example: Parliament. House of Lords (1999) Electricity from Renewables: First Report from the Select Committee on the European Union. London: The Stationery Office. (HL 1999-2000 (18)).

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The renewable energies might offer an alternative to the fossil and the nuclear options (Parliament. House of Lords, 1999).

Note: It is important to avoid ambiguity in order for your reader to be able to link your in-text citation to the full reference you are providing in your reference list. In most cases a brief citation as above will be sufficient to link to the appropriate report. However, if you are citing more than one House of Lords report published in 1999, it would be necessary to distinguish between the reports referring to a brief title in your main text. For example: According to the Electricity from Renewals report (1999)...

Hansard

How to format your reference (electronic format)

Author (Year of publication). 'Subject of debate or speech', Hansard: Name of House of Parliament, debates/written statement/petitions. Day and month, Volume number, column number, page number. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Williams, H. (2015). 'Benefit sanctions'. Hansard: House of Commons debates. 16 September, 599, c.1032. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmhansrd/chan45.pdf [Accessed 09 March 2018].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Hywell Williams MP (2015) questioned the impact of sanctions in Wales.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Images and illustrations

See also photographs, art, works of and web pages

Images of works of art accessed electronically

How to format your reference

Artist surname, initials. (Date of creation), Title of the Work [medium]. At: place where the work is housed: institution or collection that houses the work [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Turner, J.M.W. (c.1825-30) Sunrise [watercolour on paper]. At: London: Tate Britain [online]. Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk [Accessed 19 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Turner’s Sunrise (1825-30) is considered one of the artist’s greatest watercolours.

Example within an image caption: Figure 1: Sunrise by J.M.W. Turner (Turner, 1825-30).

Image taken from another work (eg reproduced in an exhibition catalogue or book)

Notes:

  • If the image is taken from another work (for example, reproduced in an exhibition catalogue or book) it should be cited as part of that book (print).
  • If the image is taken from a webpage (and is not a work of art) it should be cited as a webpage.
How to format your reference

Artist surname, initials. (Date of creation) Title of work [medium]. In: Publication author surname, initials. Title of Publication. Place of publication: publisher, date, page number.

Example: Edgerton, H. (1957) Milk drop coronet [photograph] In: Thomas, A. (1998) Beauty of Another Order: Photography in Science. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, p.183.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The photograph shows the flower in very close detail (Edgerton, 1957).

Example within an image caption: Figure 1: Close detail of a flower (Edgerton, 1957).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Images you have created yourself

If you have created your own images (e.g. drawings, charts, graphs, tables and photographs) you do not need to reference them. However, you should include a caption with a brief explanation or title. For further information, see our guide to formatting your work.

Interviews

Interview on the internet

How to format your reference

Surname of person interviewed, initials. (Year of interview) Title of the interview (if any). Interview with interviewee’s name OR Interview by interviewer’s name. Title of Publication or Broadcast, DD Month [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Blair, T. (2007) The Tony Blair interview with Andrew Marr. Interview with Tony Blair. Andrew Marr Show, 05 September [online]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00tn4fw#broadcasts [Accessed 27 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The former Labour Prime Minister discussed his time in office with caution (Blair, 2007).

Interview on television/radio

How to format your reference

Surname of person interviewed, initials. (Year of broadcast) Title of the interview (if any). Interview with interviewee’s name OR Interview by interviewer’s name. Title of Publication or Broadcast, Name of the channel, DD Month of broadcast.

Example: Blair, T. (2007) The Tony Blair interview with Andrew Marr. Interview with Tony Blair. Andrew Marr Show, BBC One, 05 September.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The former Labour Prime Minister discussed his time in office with caution (Blair, 2007).

Published interview or interview conducted for research

Note: in many cases you will need to anonymise the person involved in the interview, for example, in healthcare situations. You may use terms such as 'subject 1', 'patient x' or 'respondent A'.

How to format your reference

Surname of person interviewed, Initials (year of interview) Title of interview (if any). Interviewed by name of interviewer. Title of the work it is included in, DD, Month [format of interview, eg telephone interview].

Example: Respondent A (2013) Criminal law focus group. Interviewed by Sue Shreeve. Value and Impact of Librarians' Interventions on Student Skills Development (Library Impact and Value For Education and Skills: LIVES) Project: Phase 1 Report, 22 February [focus group].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: With regard to the assignment one student commented that, "I think it just made the process quite tough, but with the help from the Librarians it was manageable" (Respondent A, 2013, p.69).

Citing

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Journal articles

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of the article. Journal Title [online]. Volume (part/issue), page numbers if available. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italicscapitalisation and  punctuation in the right place.

Example: Debusscher, P. and De Almagro, M.M. (2016) Post-conflict women's movements in turmoil: The challenges of success in Liberia in the 2005-aftermath. Journal of Modern African Studies [online]. 54 (2), pp.293-316. [Accessed 20 January 2020].

Example: Grundey, D. (2007) Global marketing ethics: social and emotional-psychological issues in advertising to children. Transformations in Business Economics [online]. 6, pp. 41-64. [Accessed 10 January 2011].

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Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: "The use of colourful characters in children's advertising is problematic" (Grundey, 2007, p.44).

Print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Journal Title. Volume (part/issue), page numbers.

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Wilson, D. (1995) Emerging cultures: multiculturalism in Sweden. Scandinavian Studies. 15 (9), pp. 62-64.

Example: Edge, I. and Murphy, V. (1976) New uses of technology in dentistry. British Dental Journal. 8 (3), pp. 450-600.

Example: Langman, S., Smith, J., Athens, D.A. and Gibbs, Y. (2000) Life cycles: manufacturing techniques in the new millennium. Manufacturing Weekly. 15 (1), pp. 12-18.

Note: If the journal is a supplement, include the word ‘Supplement’.

Supplement example: Fletcher, J. (2010) Making use of clinical evidence to provide quality patient care. British Journal of Nursing. 16 (Supplement), pp. 3-17.

UWE Bristol Harvard reference builder

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Edge and Murphy (1976) discuss the new uses of technology in dentistry in the context of the need for curricula to reflect the changes new technology will bring about to the role of dental staff.

Example: Edge and Murphy (1976, p.14) state that "curricula must reflect the changes brought about by new technology."

Journal articles (pre-publication) in digital repositories

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of the article. To be published in Name of the publication [preprint]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Wharton, R. and Pollard, K. (2010) Sessional GPs: support needed to provide the evidence required for appraisal and evaluation. To be published in Education for Primary Care [preprint]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11236/ [Accessed 19 October 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The use of qualitative data by Wharton and Pollard (2010) has allowed the authors to prove this point.

Journal articles (reprints)

Note: If possible, you should only access the original article and reference this. if you are unable to access the original, only then reference the eprint.

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Reprint of: Title of the article. Journal Title [online]. Volume (part/issue), page numbers if available. In: Journal Title (Year). Volume (part/issue), page numbers if available. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Varieur Turco, J., Inal-Veith, A., Fuster, V. (1976) Reprint of: Cardiovascular Health Promotion: An Issue That Can No Longer Wait [online]. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 22 (8), pp. 908-913. In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Year) 72 (23) pp. 2945-2950. [Accessed 22 November 2019].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Varieur Turco, Inal-Veith and Fuster (1976) stress that the results of the study demonstrate that immediate action was needed.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Law reports (cases)

Referring to a case published in a law report

Note: it is important to note that date brackets may be square or round, as in the examples below. Square brackets are necessary if the date is essential to locate the law report in question. For example, if there are multiple volumes published within a year. If the volume number for the year of judgment is unique, then use round brackets.

How to format your reference

Name of Parties [Year] Volume Abbreviated form of law report Page number.

Example: West Bromwich Building Society v Wilkinson [2005] 1 WLR 2303.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example:
First time the case is mentioned in the text: The procedure has been questioned by ... (West Bromwich Building Society v Wilkinson [2005] 1 WLR 2303).
Then: ‘Reasonable Adjustment’ procedures were not found to have been followed in the case West Bromwich Building Society v Wilkinson.

Referring directly to the court case, not a publication (neutral citation)

How to format your reference

Name of Parties [year of judgment] Court abbreviation Judgment number for that year [paragraph number in the original court transcript].

Example: Rottman v MPC [2002] UKHL 20 [2].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: First time the case is mentioned in the text: This report (Rottman v MPC [2002] UKHL 20 [2]) has been considered as...
Then: The case Rottman v MPC has created...

Citing

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Leaflets

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. DD Month YYYY of when leaflet was obtained.

Example: North Bristol NHS Trust (2010) Care of Plaster Casts. 11 March 2010.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: North Bristol NHS Trust (2010) provides advice that if the patient experiences pain in the affected limb which is not resolved by over the counter medication, medical advice should be sought.

Lectures and lecturers' notes

Lectures

See public communications.

Lecturers' notes

How to format your reference

Author/lecturer surname, author/lecturer initials. (Year of posting) Title of item. Name of Academic Module [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Parsons, F. (2010) How to write good references. MA Drama [online]. Available from: https://my.uwe.ac.uk [Accessed 13 Nov 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The referencing guidelines explain the differences (Parsons, 2010).

Legal practice notes

How to format your reference

Database name (Year of Publication). Title of practice note. Database [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Practical Law (2021). Employment agencies and employment businesses: regulatory aspects. Practical Law [online]. Available from: https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/3-200-2623 [Accessed 12 March 2021].

Live performances (concerts, dance, plays)

Live concerts

How to format your reference

Composer surname, initials. (Year of première) Title of Performance. Performed by, conducted by. [Location venue, place. DD Month YYYY seen].

Example: Handel. G.F. (1742) Messiah. Performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Brian Wright. [Royal Albert Hall, London. 17 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The interpretation of the sacred oratorio Messiah (Handel, 1742) was exquisite.

Live dance

How to format your reference

Composer/choreographer surname, initials. (Year of performance) Title of Performance. [Location venue, place. DD Month seen].

Example: Bourne, M. (2011) Cinderella. [Sadler's Wells Theatre, London. 05 January].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The performance of the ever popular story was refreshing and innovative with the set and costumes based on a Welsh coal mining village (Bourne, 2011).

Live plays

How to format your reference

Title of Play by Author first name and surname (Year of performance) Directed by. [Theatre, location of theatre. DD Month seen].

Example: Hamlet by William Shakespeare (2008) Directed by Jonathan Miller. [Tobacco Factory, Bristol. 26 March].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Jamie Ballard as Hamlet brought an energy to the performance not seen in recent years (Hamlet, 2008).

Citing

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Lyrics from a song

How to format your reference

Lyricist surname, initials. (Year of distribution) Title of Song. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Marsden, G. (1964) Ferry Cross the Mersey. London: Columbia Records.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Marsden (1964) caught something of the spirit of life on Merseyside:
 
"People around every corner
They seem to smile and say
We don't care what your name is boy
We'll never turn you away".

Maps

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Corporate author or publisher (Year of publication) Title of Map Section [online]. Scale. Title of online source. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Ordnance Survey (1980) Taunton [online]. 1:50,000. Digimap. Available from: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Accessed 03 July 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Taunton city centre has been transformed in the last twenty years. One only has to refer to the map of the time (Ordnance Survey, 1980) to realise the developments which have taken place.

Print format

How to format your reference

Corporate author or publisher (Year of publication) Title, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: Publisher. (Series).

Example: Ordnance Survey (2006) Bristol & Bath, sheet 172, 1:50,000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Example: Ordnance Survey (1980) Bedfordshire (solid), sheet 10, 1:50,000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. (Geological Survey of Great Britain [England and Wales]).

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Sites of historic interest are emboldened (Ordnance Survey, 2006).

Citing

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Mathematical equations

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Title of Journal [online]. Volume no. (issue no.), page numbers. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Ronson, M. and Antonelli, L. (2004) Statistical data implementation in criminal cases. Mathematical Gazette [online]. 18 (4), pp. 32-56. [Accessed 03 July 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Ronson and Antonelli (2004, p.33) noted that c (c-1) = c2 - c

Print format

How to format your reference

Note: Refer to book or journal reference styles.

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Title of Journal. Volume no. (issue no.), page numbers.

Example: Ronson, M. and Antonelli, L. (2004) Statistical data implementation in criminal cases. Mathematical Gazette. 18 (4), pp. 32-56.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Ronson and Antonelli (2004, p.33) noted that c (c-1) = c2 - c

Citing

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Message/bulletin boards and discussion

Message/bulletin board or discussion list website

How to format your reference

Listname/Groupname/Board [online] (Year of latest update). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Francofil: French Studies Electronic Discussion List [online] (2010). Available from: http://www.liv.ac.uk/soclas/francofil/index.htm [Accessed 06 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Discussion groups where languages can be practised become online communities where real friendships are made ‘Francofil’, 2010).

Message on a message/bulletin board or discussion list website

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of message) Subject of message. Listname, DD Month of message [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: URL - use the web address if the discussion is posted on the web; use the group email address where conversation took place but is not available on the web.

Example: Green, D. (2011) Witches threaten Romanian taxman after new labour law. Society for the Academic Study of Magic Discussion List, 07 January [online]. Available from: https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A0=ACADEMIC-STUDY-MAGIC [Accessed 07 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The issues related to the new labour law have raised the question of ethics (Green, 2011).

Message sent to an email discussion list

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of message) Subject of message. Listname, DD Month of message [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: URL - use the web address if the discussion is posted on the web; use the group e-mail address where conversation took place but is not available on the web.

Example: Green, D. (2011) Witches threaten Romanian taxman after new labour law. Society for the Academic Study of Magic Discussion List, 07 January [online]. Available from: https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A0=ACADEMIC-STUDY-MAGIC [Accessed 07 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The issues related to the new labour law have raised the question of ethics (Green, 2011).

Citing

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Microformats

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Harris, I. S. (1978) The Influence of Shakespeare on the Odes of Keats [microfilm]. Boston: Boston University Graduate School.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Harris (1978) has carried out a painstaking analysis which will be the definitive analysis for years to come.

Military records

How to format your reference

'Name of Person' (Year of Publication) Title of Publication [military record]. Publication Details (if available).

If electronic, add after publication details: Available from: URL of the database/web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: 'Private Arthur Edwards' (1917) Commonwealth War Graves Commission Casualty Details [military record]. Available from: http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=65107 [Accessed 27 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Private Edwards received a military funeral in his home town of Nottingham. He was fatally wounded whilst on duty in Flanders ('Private Arthur Edwards', 1917).

Minutes of meetings

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (individual or group if identified) (Year of meeting) Item being referenced, Title and DD Month of Meeting, Organisation, Location of Meeting.

Example: Abrams, M. (2009) Item 7.2: town centre pigeon control, Minutes of Public Hygiene Committee Meeting 27 September, Bidddlescome Parish Council, Biddlescombe.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Abrams (2009) delivered his award winning presentation on town centre pigeon control to the group.

Music and sound recordings

Classical music

How to format your reference

Composer surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. [CD, audio cassette or vinyl record] First name Last name of the Subsidiary Originator (e.g. performer, conductor). Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Example: Bach, J.S. (1955) The Goldberg Variations. [CD] Glenn Gould, pianist. New York: Sony Classical.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The Goldberg Variations (Bach, 1955) are considered to be the most important example of variation form.

Popular music

How to format your reference

Artist (year of distribution) Title of recording. [CD, audio cassette or vinyl record] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Example: Ravi Shankar (2004) The Rough Guide to Ravi Shankar. [CD] New York: World Music Network.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: ... that unmistakable sitar sound (Ravi Shankar, 2004) is a haunting reminder ...

Music download

How to format your reference

Artist (if no artist use the title) (year of distribution) Title of Recording. Name of download site [download] [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Beverley Knight (2007) Music City Soul. iTunes [download] [Accessed 14 August 2013].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A new recording of soul standards (Beverley Knight, 2007)...

Music streaming

How to format your reference

Artist (if no artist use the title) (year of distribution) Title of Recording. Name of streaming site [streaming] [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Duran Duran (1983) New Moon on Monday. Spotify [streaming] [Accessed 12 April 2021].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The lyrics of New Moon on Monday (Duran Duran, 1983) could be interpreted as making a fresh start...

Sound effects

How to format your reference

Title of sound effect (year of distribution) Title of Source. [CD, audio cassette or vinyl record] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Example: Wolf howling (2007) Sound Effects volume 2. [CD] Merenberg, Germany: ZYX Music.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The authentic sound of the wolf (Wolf howling, 2007) sends a shiver...

Play (audio recording)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (year of distribution) Title of Play [CD, audio cassette or vinyl record] Place of distribution if known: Distribution Company.

Example: Shakespeare, W. (1999) Hamlet [CD] BBC Audiobooks.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: To hear those wonderful soliloquies (Shakespeare, 1999) whenever you want...

Poetry (online audio recording)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. Title of Poem. Read by. Source (Date of recording if known) [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Wordsworth, W. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud. Read by Robert Creeley. Literature Online [Accessed 28 August 2013].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Hearing a contemporary speaker interpret this famous poem (Wordsworth)...

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Newspapers

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of article. Title of Newspaper [online]. DD Month of publication, page number of article (if given). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Weaver, M. (2010) The Chilean miners: who's who at the surface. The Guardian [online] 10 November. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/chile/7365 [Accessed 14 October 2010].

Print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Title of Newspaper. DD Month of publication, page number of article (if given).

Example: Weaver, M. (2010) The Chilean miners: who's who at the surface. The Guardian. 14 October, p.5.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: It was reported that there were great celebrations at the surface as the last Chilean miner was rescued (Weaver, 2010)

Where author is unknown

How to format your reference

Title of Newspaper (Year of publication) Title of the article. DD Month of publication, page number of article.

Example: The Guardian (2010) The Chilean miners: who's who at the surface. 14 October, p.5.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: It was reported (The Guardian, 2010) that there were great celebrations at the surface as the last Chilean miner was rescued.

Viewed on a CD-ROM

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of article. Title of Newspaper [CD-ROM]. DD Month of publication, page number of article (if given).

Example: Weaver, M. (2010) The Chilean miners: who's who at the surface. The Guardian [CD-ROM] 10 November.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

The in-text citation will be the same as for print and electronic newspaper articles.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Official publications (including: Government, health and national and international organisations)

Note:

  • Government Official publications include: Command Papers (white and green papers) and departmental papers.
  • Health Official Publications include: Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) publications and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines.
  • National and international organisations (NGOs): include publication such as reports, policies, guidelines and contracts.

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Name of Committee, Department or Royal Commission (Year of publication) Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. (Paper number). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example of a command paper: Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (2008) 1st July 2007 to 31st March 2008, 28th (Regulatory) Impact Assessment Command Paper [online]. London: The Stationery Office. (Cm 7358). Available from: http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm73/7358/7358.asp [Accessed 20 July 2010].

Example of a departmental paper: Department for Health (2010) Six Years On – Delivering the Diabetes National Service Framework [online]. London: Department for Health. Available from: http:/www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/documents/digitalasset/dh_112511.pdf [Accessed 12 April 2017].

Example of an international organisation's publication: Amnesty International (2012) Year of Rebellion: the State of Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa [online]. London: Amnesty International Ltd. (MDE 01/001/2012). Available from: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE01/001/2012/en [Accessed 12 January 2012].

Example of publications for a regulatory body: Nursing and Midwifery Council (2018) The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses, midwives and nursing associates [online]. Available from: https://www.nmc.org.uk/standards/code/read-the-code-online [Accessed 31 January 2019].

Example of publications for a regulatory body: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society Joint Formulary Committee (2018) British National Formulary [online]. BNF 73. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The latest advice (Cabinet Office, 2009)...

Example: The recommended drug dosage was too high according to the evidence (British Medical Association (BMA) and Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS), 2018).

Example:The Nursing and Midwifery Council has a function to protect the public (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018).

Print format

How to format your reference

Name of Committee, Department or Royal Commission (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Paper number).

Example of a Command Paper: Cabinet Office (2009) Cyber Security Strategy of the United Kingdom: Safety, Security and Resilience in Cyber Space. London: The Stationery Office. (Cm 7642).

Example of a departmental paper: Department for Education (2011) The Importance of Music: a National Plan for Music Education. London: Department for Education.

Example of an international organisation's publication: United Nations (2011) The Millennium Development Goals Report: 2011. New York: United Nations.

Example from a regulatory body: Nursing and Midwifery Council (2018) The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses, midwives and nursing associates. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

The in-text citation will be the same for print and electronic formats.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Parish registers

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Name of person(s) separated by ‘and’ if more than one (Year of event) Type of event (eg Baptism, Wedding, Burial) of First name Last name of person(s), date of event. Title of Register [online]. Name of website (Year of last update). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Richard Foster and Maria King (1805) Marriage of Richard Foster and Maria King, 1 June 1805. St Michael's Church Bath, Somerset Marriage Register 1780-1809 [online]. Ancestry (2009). Available from: http://www.ancestry.co.uk [Accessed 03 July 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Richard and Maria’s wedding (‘Richard Foster and Maria King’, 1805)...

Print format

How to format your reference

Name of person(s) separated by ‘and’ if more than one (Year of event) Type of event (eg Baptism, Wedding, Burial) of First name Last name of person(s), date of event. Title of Register.

Example: Richard Foster and Maria King (1805) Marriage of Richard Foster and Maria King, 1 June 1805. St Michael's Church Bath, Somerset Marriage Register 1780-1809.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

The in-text citation will be the same for print and electronic formats.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Patents

How to format your reference

Inventor surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Applicant. Patent number. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Brown, J. and Duff, W. (2010) Multipurpose Window System [online]. Brown, J. and Duff, W. GB2407118. Available from: www.ipo.gov.uk [Accessed 11 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Brown and Duff (2010) proposed a solution to the problem.

PDFs

Many of the different types of information listed in the UWE Bristol Harvard A-Z can be converted into a PDF (Portable Document Format) file.

You need to decide, based on its content, what type of information source it is. For example, your PDF file might be a:

So, if the PDF you are consulting is a chapter from a book, follow the guidelines for chapter from a book when putting together your reference.

On occasion you may find that the example given in the UWE Bristol Harvard A-Z does not give enough information for the reader to locate the PDF file you used. In this instance you may need to use a ‘best fit’ approach and adapt the example.

Personal communications, including emails and letters

For emails sent to a discussion list, see message/bulletin boards and discussion lists.

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Type of communication including recipient, DD Month of communication.

Example: Walters, C. (2010) Email to Frank Smith, 14 September.

Example: Griffiths, G. (2010) Text Message to Kate Middleton, 06 July.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: An alternative was suggested in a letter from Walters (2010).

Photographs

See also images and illustrations.

Electronic

How to format your reference

Photographer’s surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [photograph]. In: Title of Publication [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Idleformat (2010) Clifton Suspension Bridge [photograph]. In: Flickr [online]. Available from: www.flickr.com/idleformat [Accessed 14 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This beautiful photograph (Idleformat, 2010)…

Example within a photograph caption: Figure 1: Clifton Suspension Bridge (Idleformat, 2010).

In a book

How to format your reference

Photographer’s surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [medium]. In: Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Publication. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Taylor-Wood, S. (2004) Chair [photograph]. In: Taylor-Wood, S. (2009) Sam Taylor-Wood: Self-Portrait Suspended. London: White Cube.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The depth and warmth in Taylor-Woods’ photograph (2004)...

Example within a photograph caption: Figure 1: ‘Chair’ by Sam Taylor-Wood (Taylor-Wood, 2004).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Images you have created yourself

If you have created your own images (e.g. drawings, charts, graphs, tables and photographs) you do not need to reference them. However, you should include a caption with a brief explanation or title. For further information, see our guide to formatting your work.

Planning documents

Planning application: electronic format

How to format your reference

Applicant name (Year of publication) Title [online]. Town/City: Local Authority. (Paper number). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: St Werburghs City Farm (2018) Demolition of existing greenhouse and replacement with new greenhouse on existing dwarf wall [online]. Bristol: Bristol City Council (18/01983/F). Available from: https://pa.bristol.gov.uk/online-applications/applicationDetails.do?keyVal=P7469DDNGXP00&activeTab=summary [Accessed 14 April 2021].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: The planning application summary by St Werburghs City Farm (2018) states...

Planning documents: electronic format

How to format your reference

Applicant name (Year of publication) Drawing number: description/title [document type]. Town/City: Local Authority. (Paper number). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics, capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: St Werburghs City Farm (2018) Officer Report [Delegated Report]. Bristol: Bristol City Council (18/01983/F). Available from: https://pa.bristol.gov.uk/online-applications/applicationDetails.do?activeTab=documents&keyVal=P7469DDNGXP00 [Accessed 14 April 2021].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: The construction details (St Werburghs City Farm, 2018) show...

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Podcasts (including phonecasts, videocasts, screencasts)

Podcast

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of posting) Title of the podcast. Title of the Internet Website [podcast/phonecast/videocast/screencast]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Dunster, M. (2010) Welcome to the dissertation learning unit. Dissertation A&B Learning Unit [podcast]. Available from: http://www.uwe.ac.uk/library/resources/dissertation/ [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This collaborative work between UWE Library Services and the Faculty (Dunster, 2010) …

Phonecast

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of posting) Title of the podcast. Title of the Internet Website [podcast/phonecast/videocast/screencast]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Fontana, D.J. (2007) We're talking Elvis. Phonecasting [phonecast]. 03 July. Available from: http://www.phonecasting.com//Channel/ViewChannel.aspx?id=1444# [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In this documentary, Fontana (2007) speaks about his career with Elvis Presley.

Videocast/vidcast

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of posting) Title of the podcast. Title of the Internet Website [podcast/phonecast/videocast/screencast]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: University of the West of England (2011) UWE research video. University of the West of England [videocast]. 08 April. Available from: http://rbi.uwe.ac.uk/internet/Research/researchatuwe/researchvideo.asp [Accessed 07 July 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: UWE (2010) is very keen to develop more collaboration with research partners.

Screencast

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of posting) Title of the podcast. Title of the Internet Website [podcast/phonecast/videocast/screencast]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Wolfram, S. (2009) An intro to Wolfram/Alpha, part 1. Wolframalpha [screencast]. Available from: http://www.wolframalpha.com/screencast/introducingwolframalpha.html [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This presentation helps the users to refine their search strategy (Wolfram, 2009).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Posters and displays

See also images and illustrations (from a gallery or institution)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Poster [poster]. Place of event, DD Month.

Example: Davison, J. (2013) Let’s Dance [poster]. Bristol. 08 July.

Example: King, O. (2013) Social Learning and Path Dependency: Critical Perspectives on EU and US approaches to the Democratisation of Water Governance [poster]. Bristol, 08 July.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In the poster viewed at the conference in Bristol (King, 2013), ...

Public communications (eg lectures, presentations, webinars, announcements)

Public event or print-format public communication

How to format your reference

Author/speaker surname, initials. (Year of event). Title of Communication [medium]. Location. DD Month of event.

Example: Williams, J. (2009) Equine Reproduction [lecture to BSC Equine Science Year 1], Hartpury College. 27 January.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Equine reproduction is not being studied enough in the UK (Williams, 2009).

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author/speaker surname, initials. (Year of event). Title of Communication [medium]. DD Month of event. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: British Horseracing Authority (2011) British Racing Pledges Free Tickets for Troops [press release]. 6 January. Available from: https://www.britishhorseracing.presscentre.com/Press-Releases/BRITISH-RACING-PLEDGES-FREE-TICKETS-FOR-TROOPS-1ab.aspx [Accessed 07 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In its communiqué, the British Horseracing Authority (2011) has decided to offer free entry to troops and their families.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Radio programmes

Broadcast on the radio

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number, Episode number, Title of episode [radio]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast.

Example: That Mitchell and Webb Sound (2007), Series 3, Episode 6 [radio]. BBC Radio 4 (FM only), 28 June.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Webb uses the library as a location for his unpleasant “Little Date” character in That Mitchell and Webb Sound (2007).

Accessed from the Internet

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number, Episode number, Title of episode [radio]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: if the programme is a one-off, without a series number, episode number or episode title, simply omit this information.

Example: Poetry of the Forgotten People (2010) [radio]. BBC Radio 4, 15 August. Available from: http://www.bbc/co.uk/programmes/b00td4v8 [Accessed 16 August 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Scaatchi is clearly moved by Oodgeroo Noonuccal’s work (Poetry of the Forgotten People, 2010)

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Reports (eg annual, company, financial, market, technical)

Note: If you need to reference a type of report not listed below, choose the nearest match from those listed below and apply the guidance to your report.

Annual and company reports: electronic format

How to format your reference

Company’s name (Year) Report Title [online]. Place of publication (company’s head office): publisher (name of the company). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Tesco PLC (2011) Annual report and Financial Statement 2011 [online]. Dundee: Tesco PLC. Available from: http://www.tescoplc.com/media/417/tesco_annual_report_2011_final.pdf [Accessed 08 September 2011].

Example: Alzheimer's Society (2015) Dementia 2015: Aiming Higher to Transport Lives [online]. London: Alzheimer's Society. Available from: https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/2700/dementia_2015_aiming_higher_to_transform_lives.pdf [Accessed 12 April 2017].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: the Tesco dividend per share % 10.80 increase (Tesco PLC, 2011)

Annual and company reports: print format

How to format your reference

Company’s name (Year) Report Title. Place of publication i.e. company’s head office: publisher i.e. name of the company.

Example: British Airways PLC (1980) Annual report and accounts 1979-1980. Harmondsworth: British Airways.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: British Airways’s turn over in 1979 (British Airways PLC) was...

Financial reports from online databases

How to format your reference

Publishing organisation (Year of publication) Title of extract. Database Title [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Bureau van Dijk (2008) BT Group PLC company report. FAME [online]. Available from: http://fame2.bvdep.com [Accessed 02 July 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: BT's gross profit declined by 17% in the financial year 2005-2006 (Bureau van Dijk, 2008).

Market surveys: electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Report Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher (if available). [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Mintel (2009) Shaving Products and Depilatories - France [online]. Mintel Oxygen. [Accessed 20 July 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Mintel (2009) notes that “the diversification of products in this area is a trend we in the UK will witness in the next five years”.

Market surveys: print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Report Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Key Note Ltd (2005) Mobile Phones. Hampton: Key Note.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Key Note Ltd (2005) noted the rapid expansion in the market for the secondary school market.

Technical reports

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Report number. Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Davila, D. (2010) The Air We Breathe [online]. Report number: KSC-2010-269. NASA Kennedy Space Center. Available from: http://naca.larc.nasa.gov [Accessed 15 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The rise in allergies may be attributed to poor air quality (Davila, 2010).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

RSS feeds

Use the format for the media type being accessed. For example, a blog.

Sacred texts

The Bible

Note: you do not need to refer to page numbers or to authors; page numbers will be different in different printings of the Bible, and authorship is a topic of considerable debate amongst scholars.

How to format your reference

Book of the Bible Chapter: Verse, Version of the Bible.

Example: 1 Corinthians 15:19, King James Version of the Bible.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A central tenet of the Christian faith is expressed in the phrase "If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable" (1 Corinthians 15:19).

The Qur'an

How to format your reference

Qur’an Chapter: Verse.

Example: Qur’an Al-Fatihah 1:1.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The descriptions used are wide ranging (Qur’an Al-Fatihah 1:1).

The Torah

How to format your reference

Torah. Book Chapter: Verse.

Example: Torah. Exodus 25:1-27.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A description of the construction of the tabernacle is detailed ( Torah. Exodus 25:1-27).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Social networking websites (Facebook, etc)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of posting) Name of the group. Name of the Social Network Website [online]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Smith, J. (2010) UWE Bristol. Facebook [online]. 13 June. Available from: http://www.facebook.com/#!/uwebristol [Accessed 16 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The new regulations were noted by the Students Union (Smith, 2010).

Software

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication if given) Title of Program/App (Version) [computer program/mobile app]. Available from: i.e. Distributor, address, or URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

For mobile apps, you should be able to source some of this information from the app store entry.

Example: Autodesk Corporation (2011) Autodesk Maya (2011) [computer program]. Available from: http://students.autodesk.com [Accessed 14 February 2010].

Example: BNF Publications (2021) BNF and BNF for Children (Version 3.0.9) [mobile app]. Available from: Google Play [Accessed 28 May 2021].

Example: Poppulo (2021) Poppulo (Version 1.8.32) [mobile app]. Available from: App Store [Accessed 27 May 2021].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Autodesk Corporation (2011) specifies very clearly that...

Standards

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Name of authorising organisation (Year of publication) Number and Title of Standard [online]. Name of website. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: British Standards Institution (2006) BS ISO 10842 Aircraft - Ground Service Connections - Locations and Types [online]. British Standards Online. London: British Standards Institution. Available from: https://bsol.bsigroup.com [Accessed 23 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: These bibliographic guidelines make it explicit (British Standards Institution, 2010).

Print format

How to format your reference

Name of authorising organisation (Year of publication) Number and Title of Standard. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: British Standards Institution (2010) BS ISO 690 Information and Documentation - Guidelines for Bibliographic References and Citations to Information Resources. London: British Standards Institution.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: These bibliographic guidelines make it explicit (British Standards Institution, 2010).

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Statutory instruments

See also Acts of Parliament (statutes)

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Name/title including year. (SI year and number). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: General Dental Council (Constitution) (Amendment) Order 2012. (SI 2012/16555). Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1655/contents/made [Accessed 09 March 2018].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Referring to the General Dental Council (Constitution)(Amendment) Order 2012...

Print format

How to format your reference

Name/title including year. (SI year and number).

Example: General Dental Council (Constitution) (Amendment) Order 2012. (SI 2012/16555).

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

The in-text citation will be the same for print and electronic formats.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Television programmes

Note: series, and episodes of series, do not include details of the writer or director as they are often the work of multiple creators.

An episode broadcast on TV

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast) Series number, Episode number, Title of episode [TV]. Channel of original broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast.

Example: I May Destroy You (2020) Series 1, Episode 3, Don’t Forget the Sea [TV]. BBC One, 15 June.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Taking us back in time to Arabella and Terry’s trip to Italy, Coel explores another facet of the issue of consent (I May Destroy You, 2020).

A one-off programme or film broadcast on TV

How to format your reference

Title of programme (Year of first broadcast) [TV]. Directed by Directors name. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast.

Example: What Makes a Woman? (2018) [TV]. Directed by Munroe Bergdorf. Channel 4, 16 May.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Munroe Bergdorf’s documentary What Makes a Woman? (2018) was aired as part of Channel 4’s Genderquake season and looks at contemporary debates surrounding transgender rights.

The whole series broadcast on TV

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast) [TV]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast.

Example: Gentleman Jack (2019) [TV], BBC One, 22 April.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Sally Wainwright’s Gentleman Jack (2019) dramatizes the queerly coded journals of Anne Lister, a nineteenth century landowner who defied social convention in her search for a wife.

An episode viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number, Episode number, Title of episode [online]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYY].

Example: Dear White People (2017), Volume 1, Episode 1, Chapter I [online]. Netflix, 28 April. Available from: http://www.netflix.com/gb [Accessed 31 July 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The premiere centres on Sam, a college radio DJ, who uses her platform to challenge an upcoming blackface frat party (Dear White People, 2017).

A one-off programme/film viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Title of programme (Year of first broadcast) [online]. Directed by Directors name. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Anthony (2020) [online]. Directed by Jimmy McGovern. BBC One, 27 July. Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/ [Accessed 28 July 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This drama, portraying the life Anthony Walker might have led, had a profound impact on the BBC audience and sparked much debate on social media. (Anthony, 2020).

The whole series viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number (if applicable)[online]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYY].

Example: Glitch Techs (2020), Series 1 [online], Netflix, 21 February. Available from: http://www.netflix.com/gb [Accessed 31 July 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Animated children’s TV show Glitch Techs (2020) helps to dismantle gaming stereotypes through its diverse set of protagonists.

An episode on DVD

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number, Episode number, Title of episode [DVD]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of first broadcast. Place of distributor: Distributor.

Example: Getting On (2009), Series 1, Episode 1, Ward B4 [DVD]. BBC Four, 08 July. London: BBC DVD.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In the modern hospital comedy a different approach is taken (Ward B4, 2009).

An episode from a DVD box-set

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number, Episode number, Title of episode. In Title of compilation or Box Set [DVD]. Channel of original broadcast, DD Month of original broadcast. Place of distributor: Distributor.

Example: Bulletproof (2020), 2.2, [no title]. In Bulletproof: Series 1 and 2 box set  [DVD]. BBC Two, 25 December. London: ITV Studios Home Entertainment.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In season 2 episode 2 of Bulletproof (2020), Pike joins Bishop undercover ….

A one-off programme/film on DVD

How to format your reference

Title of film/programme (Year of release) [format]. Directed by Directors name. Country of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: RGB (2019) [DVD]. Directed by Betsy West and Julie Cohen. Kasi Lemmons. UK: Dogwoof Pictures.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The documentary, RGB (2019), looks at the life and career of US Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg ….

A whole series on DVD

How to format your reference

Title of series (Year of first broadcast), Series number (if applicable)[DVD]. Channel of first broadcast, DD Month of original broadcast. Place of distributor: Distributor.

Example: Luther (2013), Series 3 [DVD]. BBC One, 09 July. London: BBC Worldwide Ltd.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Idris Elba has received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for outstanding lead actor in his title role within Luther (2013).

Citing

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Theses, dissertations, student projects

Print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Thesis, Dissertation or Project. Level of qualification, Name of University.

Example: Nayak, A. (2004) Creative Management: a Decentred Perspective. PhD, University of the West of England.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The findings of Nayak (2004)...

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Thesis, Dissertation or Project [online]. Level of qualification, Name of University. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Chambakata, C. (2010) HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Zambia: Which Way Forward? [online]. MSc, University of the West of England. Available from: http://www.uwe.ac.uk/library/catalogue [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Chambakata (2010) considered psychosocial methods of research in her work.

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Web pages

Note: many of the different types of information listed in the UWE Bristol Harvard A-Z can be found on a website.

You need to decide, based on its content, what type of information source it is. For example, on the website you might find a:

For example, if the information source is a journal article, follow the guidelines for journal article when putting together your reference.

Webpages

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. / Organisation (Year of publication or last update) Title of Webpage. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Royal College of Nursing (2009) Learning and Education. Available from: http://www.rcn.org.uk/development/learning [Accessed 22 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: You can read the detail in the College’s report (Royal College of Nursing, 2009).

Images or diagrams taken from webpages

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. / Organisation (Year of publication or last update) Title of Image/Diagram. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Franklin Institute (2019) Structure of the Heart. Available from: https://www.fi.edu/heart/structure-heart [Accessed 16 January 2020].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This image illustrates the left ventricle (Franklin Institute, 2019).

Wiki articles

How to format your reference

Title of the article. (Year of last update) Title of the Web page [online]. DD Month last updated. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Why a Wiki? (2017) TeachersFirst.com [online]. 02 January. Available from: http://www.teachersfirst.com/content/wiki/whywiki.cfm [Accessed 03 January 2017].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A useful resource for describing the benefits of wikis in teaching [Why a Wiki? 2017].

Citing

Get further advice on citing.

Working papers

Ask a librarian

Library staff are happy to advise on referencing, however, they are unable to proofread academic work.

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