# Statistics in Linguistics

## Christopher Butler

##### Preface to the web edition

It is now over 20 years since the publication of *Statistics in Linguistics*, and the book unfortunately went out of print some time ago, the rights reverting to me. Nevertheless, I still get enquiries from students and lecturers alike, asking where they can obtain a copy, as they continue to find the book useful. I am therefore extremely grateful to Dr Helmut Daller for offering to ask the University of the West of England if it could be put on the University’s website, also to the University for allowing this, and to Mr Bryan Lloyd for scanning the book and converting it to an appropriate form.

In the Indonesian translation, published in 1995, I made some corrections to the book, and I have taken the opportunity of including these at appropriate points in the web version. Readers will, of course, find the final chapter on ‘Statistics, computers and calculators’ hopelessly out of date now, but I have left it in for historical completeness.

**Christopher Butler**

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- Some fundamental concepts in statistics (171k)
- Frequency distributions (127k)
- Measures of central tendency an variability (178k)
- The normal distribution (161k)
- Sample statistics and population parameters: estimation (125k)
- Project design and hypothesis testing: basic principles (200k)
- Parametric tests of significance (243k)
- Some useful non-parametric tests (162k)
- The chi-square test (191k)
- The F distribution and its uses (146k)
- Correlation (186k)
- Statistics, computers and calculators (144k)

Appendix 1 Statistical tables (136k)

Appendix 2 Answers to exercises (281k)

References (15k)

Index (46k)